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**CHEMISTRY**

**Physical chemistry**

General topics

Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states

Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding

Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics

First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium

Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of ΔG and ΔG0 in chemical equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry

Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to ΔG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics

Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state

Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, α, β, γ), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions

Raoult’s law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry

Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).

Nuclear chemistry

Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of α, β and γ rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

**Inorganic Chemistry**

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals

Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur.

Preparation and properties of the following compounds

Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia; Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides.

Transition elements (3d series)

Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).

Preparation and properties of the following compounds:

Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.

Ores and minerals

Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium, zinc and silver.

Extractive metallurgy

Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded); Carbon reduction method (iron and tin); Self reduction method (copper and lead); Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium); Cyanide process (silver and gold).

Principles of qualitative analysis:

Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.

**Organic Chemistry**

Concepts

Hybridisation of carbon; σ and π-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules; Structural and geometrical isomerism; Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded); IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds); Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections); Resonance and hyperconjugation; Keto-enoltautomerism; Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes

Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes

Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen); Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.

Reactions of benzene

Structure and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect of o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.

Phenols

Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.

Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above)

Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions; Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones; Ethers: Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition); Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis; Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction; Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).

Carbohydrates

Classification; mono- and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

Amino acids and peptides

General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.

Properties and uses of some important polymers

Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon and PVC.

Practical organic chemistry:

Detection of elements (N, S, halogens); Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro; Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.

MATHEMATICS

**Algebra**

Algebra of complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, cube roots of unity, geometric interpretations.

Quadratic equations with real coefficients, relations between roots and coefficients, formation of quadratic equations with given roots, symmetric functions of roots.

Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.

Logarithms and their properties.

Permutations and combinations, binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients.

Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers, equality of matrices, addition, multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices, transpose of a matrix, determinant of a square matrix of order up to three, inverse of a square matrix of order up to three, properties of these matrix operations, diagonal, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties, solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables.

Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, independence of events, computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations.

**Trigonometry**

Trigonometric functions, their periodicity and graphs, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, general solution of trigonometric equations.

Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only).

**Analytical geometry**

Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.

Equation of a straight line in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line; Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrency of lines; Centroid, orthocentre, incentre and circumcentre of a triangle.

Equation of a circle in various forms, equations of tangent, normal and chord.

Parametric equations of a circle, intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line.

Equations of a parabola, ellipse and hyperbola in standard form, their foci, directrices and eccentricity, parametric equations, equations of tangent and normal.

Locus problems.

Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space, equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane.

**Differential calculus**

Real valued functions of a real variable, into, onto and one-to-one functions, sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, composite functions, absolute value, polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limit and continuity of a function, limit and continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, L’Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions.

Even and odd functions, inverse of a function, continuity of composite functions, intermediate value property of continuous functions.

Derivative of a function, derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule, derivatives of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Derivatives of implicit functions, derivatives up to order two, geometrical interpretation of the derivative, tangents and normals, increasing and decreasing functions, maximum and minimum values of a function, Rolle’s theorem and Lagrange’s mean value theorem.

**Integral calculus**

Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions, definite integrals and their properties, fundamental theorem of integral calculus.

Integration by parts, integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions, application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves.

Formation of ordinary differential equations, solution of homogeneous differential equations, separation of variables method, linear first order differential equations.

**Vectors**

Addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, dot and cross products, scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.

**PHYSICS**

**General **

Units and dimensions, dimensional analysis; least count, significant figures; Methods of measurement and error analysis for physical quantities pertaining to the following experiments: Experiments based on using Vernier calipers and screw gauge (micrometer), Determination of g using simple pendulum, Young’s modulus by Searle’s method, Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter, focal length of a concave mirror and a convex lens using u-v method, Speed of sound using resonance column, Verification of Ohm’s law using voltmeter and ammeter, and specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box.

**Mechanics **

Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only), projectiles; Uniform circular motion; Relative velocity.

Newton’s laws of motion; Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference; Static and dynamic friction; Kinetic and potential energy; Work and power; Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy.

Systems of particles; Centre of mass and its motion; Impulse; Elastic and inelastic collisions.

Law of gravitation; Gravitational potential and field; Acceleration due to gravity; Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits; Escape velocity.

Rigid body, moment of inertia, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes; Angular momentum; Torque; Conservation of angular momentum; Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation; Rolling without slipping of rings, cylinders and spheres; Equilibrium of rigid bodies; Collision of point masses with rigid bodies.

Linear and angular simple harmonic motions.

Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus.

Pressure in a fluid; Pascal’s law; Buoyancy; Surface energy and surface tension, capillary rise; Viscosity (Poiseuille’s equation excluded), Stoke’s law; Terminal velocity, Streamline flow, equation of continuity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Wave motion (plane waves only), longitudinal and transverse waves, superposition of waves; Progressive and stationary waves; Vibration of strings and air columns; Resonance; Beats; Speed of sound in gases; Doppler effect (in sound).

**Thermal physics **

Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases; Calorimetry, latent heat; Heat conduction in one dimension; Elementary concepts of convection and radiation; Newton’s law of cooling; Ideal gas laws; Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monoatomic and diatomic gases); Isothermal and adiabatic processes, bulk modulus of gases; Equivalence of heat and work; First law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases); Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers; Kirchhoff’s law; Wien’s displacement law, Stefan’s law.

**Electricity and magnetism **

Coulomb’s law; Electric field and potential; Electrical potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field; Electric field lines; Flux of electric field; Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases, such as, to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

Capacitance; Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics; Capacitors in series and parallel; Energy stored in a capacitor.

Electric current; Ohm’s law; Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells; Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications; Heating effect of current.

Biot–Savart’s law and Ampere’s law; Magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire, along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid; Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field.

Magnetic moment of a current loop; Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop; Moving coil galvanometer, voltmeter, ammeter and their conversions.

Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law; Self and mutual inductance; RC, LR and LC circuits with d.c. and a.c. sources.

**Optics **

Rectilinear propagation of light; Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces; Total internal reflection; Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism; Thin lenses; Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses; Magnification.

Wave nature of light: Huygen’s principle, interference limited to Young’s double-slit experiment.

**Modern physics **

Atomic nucleus; α, β and γ radiations; Law of radioactive decay; Decay constant; Half-life and mean life; Binding energy and its calculation; Fission and fusion processes; Energy calculation in these processes.

Photoelectric effect; Bohr’s theory of hydrogen-like atoms; Characteristic and continuous X-rays, Moseley’s law; de Broglie wavelength of matter waves.

In today’s competitive world, cracking IIT is becoming increasingly difficult. Competition is increasing day by day and to get an edge over ever-increasing competition, students in the race for IIT entrance exam are starting early in lower classes.

It is seen that a student preparing for IIT is generally under tremendous stress and pressure. However, if one prepares in a systematic and planned manner, the journey** to IIT can be real fun**. Based on my experience in this field, I would like to offer some **tips on how to crack IIT JEE (or JEE Advanced).**

**Identify your strength –**You must follow your passion and make a career in the area of your strength. Cracking IIT is not everyone’s cup of tea. If you are good at mathematics and have a logical reasoning and scientific bent of mind, then you may be a candidate for IIT.**Evaluation before starting-**In case you are not sure whether you will be able to cope with the required standards for IIT preparation, you may go for an evaluation before you start. For this you may contact Pradeep Agarwal Academy where you will receive a professional guidance on this aspect.**When to start preparation –**When it comes to IIT JEE preparation, the earlier you start, the better. Though it may be alright to start in class 11th, but I would personally recommend to start in class 9^{th}which gives the student a phenomenal edge over others.**However, it is important to study at your own individual pace while enjoying every moment of it.****IIT preparation is fun-**Be relaxed and take it easy. If your approach and planning is proper, believe me, IIT preparation is fun. What is required is your own conviction, motivation, professional guidance, simple tools for solving problems fast and immediate clarification of doubts as they come.**Be assured, you will enjoy your preparation like a game. Working hard and striving for excellence will become your passion.****Physical exercise or playing –**Engaging in some sort of physical activity is recommended. It is good to simply do some jogging. This gives your body and mind the much needed break and relaxation.**Work smarter rather than just harder –**It is the Quality over Quantity which is more important. Studying with concentration and analyzing the principles and concepts with a clear mind will bring in efficiency and you will be able achieve the same targets in much less time.**Speed and Accuracy –**You must solve a problem correctly the very first time. There is no room for an error as this would severely affect your rank. So, don’t rush and skip steps. (I shall separately deal with how to solve problems fast and thus save time). Note that solving problems accurately becomes our habit which can only be inculcated by practice.**Accuracy can never be compromised with speed.****Focus on way to solve fast–**To obtain a good rank in IIT, just solving a problem is not enough. We must focus on how to solve a problem very fast and that too without compromising on accuracy. Note that speed can be increased only by a better approach to solve the problem in a very relaxed manner rather than solving by longer method and hurriedly skipping steps. Though, this is not a easy area to deal with, my suggestion is make it a habit to think of alternative approach to solve the same problem while practicing assignments. You may contact Pradeep Agarwal Academy for help in this area.**Divide preparation in different levels–**It is always better to study with a step wise approach. Whenever you start a new chapter, first complete the NCERT level including all derivations that may come in board exams, then practice all problems of JEE Main level and finally practice all problems of JEE Advanced level. This will make you feel more comfortable and you will be able to complete the chapter much faster.**Keep formulae and concepts handy for easy reference–**I tell students not to put oneself under pressure in memorizing formulae. Just keep them handy for easy reference. As you keep practicing problems, you will experience that with continued usage of formulae and concepts, they easily become your own property.**Make your own short notes –**This is a very useful technique for many reasons. Firstly, making notes automatically brings in a lot of concentration. Secondly, you generally write only after giving a sufficient thought and analysis. Finally, these are your own notes. They help you in your quick revision.**Don’t compare with others and don’t follow others-**Concentrate on your studies. Don’t worry about what others do and don’t get influenced by others. Everyone is different, have different way of grasping and presenting things. Be focused on your own target.**Eliminate your personal distractions as you study –**You have already jumped into a mad competitive world; now you have to be religiously disciplined. Though (as I have said before) the preparation for IIT is a fun and the kick that you get out of solving tough problems automatically make you disciplined, but smart phones, social media like facebook, etc. can be big distractors. Remove them from your life, at least temporarily.**Do continuous effort and make it a habit –**IIT Preparation requires continuous effort. Each subject must be given proper and regular time. Some students find one subject more interesting and tend to spend more time on it while ignoring others. All three subjects; Physics, Chemistry and Maths are equally important and none of them can be ignored.- So, on a concluding note I would say that cracking IIT is not all that difficult. Just be sincere, dedicated and smart.
**Success will be yours**.

** SUCCESS = HARD WORK + SMART WORK + LUCK**

** **

** PRADEEP AGARWAL**

The practice material at **Pradeep Agarwal Academy** is developed by a team of highly skilled, experienced and esteemed faculty that is based on the rich experience and many years of research in the field of coaching for the IIT entrance exam.

The problems are designed in a systematic and scientific manner that enables the students to develop a complete understanding of various concepts.

The challenging and elaborative problems are arranged logically chapter wise so that students are able to learn the techniques with utmost efficiency in minimum time and also develop a step-by-step approach to attain excellence for IIT entrance exam.

To be successful in various examinations, students must be able to advance in the syllabus with full confidence with all their doubts addressed properly and well in time.

The teaching methodology at “**Pradeep Agarwal Academy”** has been designed in a manner so as to incorporate in the curriculum, the regular doubt removal sessions for the problems encountered in the practice material and tests.

To crack IIT entrance exam, it is very important that one has a proper examination temperament and a somewhat different approach to the subject as compared to most of the other exams.

To solve the typical IIT entrance exam problems, one has to think in many dimensions as the process of formation of the question paper is pretty complex.

A very important aspect for obtaining a good rank is the ability to solve the problems with accuracy and that too at a very fast speed.

The book **“Physics Encyclopedia for JEE Advanced” by Pradeep Agarwal** exposes the students to such multi conceptual problems and helps them in understanding and applications of concepts and fundamentals.

**Pradeep Agarwal Academy **is the best IIT coaching institute where students are personally trained by Pradeep Agarwal Sir to build the temperament and the art of facing IIT entrance exam.

Hard work is indispensable for IIT entrance exam. If one is intelligent, that’s good but intelligence alone is not going to make one succeed in IIT.

The teaching methodology at **Pradeep Agarwal Academy** is so designed that it puts the students on a well planned path and makes them realise their maximum potential in a very motivating manner.

IITJEE requires a very systematic preparation as it tests one’s fundamentals and the ability to think logically and analytically. It examines one’s basic concepts, its logical aspects and the ability to apply fundamentals to multi-conceptual problems.

The teaching methodology at “**Pradeep Agarwal Academy**” offers the students a very systematically designed curriculum with a stepwise theory teaching and the testing of the learned concepts.

Pradeep Agarwal Academy